Periodisation can be defined as the manipulation of training variables such as volume (sets x repetitions), intensity (load/weight), recovery, frequency (per week) and exercises to produce a positive adaptive response over a training cycle, whilst reducing the likelihood of performance plateaus. Achieving positive adaptation can be achieved by utilising the principles of overload (increased volume x load), variation of variables or exercises, and specificity. It is a concept applied by coaches to create both gym and field-based programmes. Periodisation can be utilised by elite athletes to improve the execution of critical sporting actions OR by recreational gym-goers to lose weight, increase muscle mass etc…
How do I incorporate periodisation?
If you are expecting to improve performance / lose weight, then you MUST progress on a weekly basis otherwise your body will become accustomed to the stimulus that is being applied, and you will not be challenged. For example, if you are training for a marathon you might start at 5-miles per week and increase by 0.5 miles per week. The same process should be applied when training in the gym. Gym programmes can be completed in 6-week cycles, gradually starting with an endurance focus, using low intensity (load/weight) and high volume (sets x reps). Load should be increased by 2% each week up until week 6 where you would utilise a de-load (active recovery) week using less resistance. You would then progress onto the next 6-week cycle, moving onto a hypertrophy focus, increasing intensity (load/weight) and reducing volume (sets x reps) The table shows recommended training variables dependant on your training goal.
Training Goal Sets Repetitions Rest Load (% of max)
Strength 2-6 <6 2-5 Minutes >85
Power – Single Effort 3-5 1-2 2-5 Minutes 80-90
Multiple Efforts 3-5 75-85
Hypertrophy 3-6 6-12 30– 90 Seconds 65-85
Endurance 2-3 >12 <30 Seconds <65 If you are an athlete competing in a sport that requires high intensity movements such a sprinting, jumping, and changing direction then you should progress onto maximal strength/power training as competition nears. However, if you are a recreational gym-goer then your goal should be hypertrophy. Weekly planning The amount of sessions you complete on a weekly basis will influence the type of sessions you complete. As an athlete you should not train strength/power on consecutive days as performance will be inhibited on the subsequent day. You should aim to leave around 48 hours between sessions. As a recreational gym-goer you should aim to train a minimum of 3 x per week initially beginning with whole body sessions. The figures show an example session for a sprinter and recreational gym-goer. However, all of this depends on your goal, current level, training history and injury history. Therefore, a personalised programme should be created for you to get the most out of your training. W: www.functionjigsaw.co.uk E: email@example.com F: Jake Reeve Strength & Conditioning T: 07792325107